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PHILADELPHIA, 5 October –- Gamification Lecture 12: Beyond the Basics! Advanced Gamification Techniques. Lecture notes from Kevin Werbach of the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton Business School, Week 6! Aww, the last class!
The final unit details gamification-related techniques that go beyond those covered throughout the course, and concludes with a look toward the future.
Class Notes – Part 12 – Related Gamification Techniques
12.1 Gamification Techniques: Going beyond the basics
We’ve come a long way!
Our Learning Goals:
1. What is Gamification
different from games; different from serious games
2. Why it might be valuable
marketing; enterprise; internal – not right approach in every case
technique that delivers real results
3. How to do it effectively
not just PBL, but a structure that ties steps you take to objectives
4. Specific Applications
We’ve seen LOTS! In many different domains
in this final unit – aspects of gamification – beyond – a glimpse of broader debates in other areas.
12.2 Gamification Techniques: Inducement prizes
Motivational technique that’s gotten a lot of attention lately but has a long tradition. 1919 Raymond Orteig promised $25,000 for Atlantic Crossing, which Charles Lindbergh won.
An Inducement Prize is a contest to motivate a result. An alternative to an R&D grant. Can leverage / incentivize larger investment.
Prizes & Gamification
• A contest to motivate a result
• Fun? An Extrinsic reward, right? – but Self Determination Theory (SDT) suggests that showing Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness are rewards too. X-Prize
Achieve public policy goals like building autonomous cars.
So leverage extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.
12.3 Gamification Techniques: Virtual economies
What happens when we add money, or things that look like money, to a gamified system. If virtual rewards like badges are persistent, then they can start to function as virtual goods. If the system is designed in a way that gives them some scarcity value, then those virgual goods start to have value like real world goods.
• Virtual Goods
• Virtual Currency
• Virtual Economy > EVE Online, Second Life
a “dollar” is just an accounting system that makes exchanges possible. The same thing can be true of point systems in gamified systems if they are exchangeable for other things of value.
Farmville – virtual goods can be unlocked as a way to monetize the system.
Games AND Gamified Systems can have Virtual Goods & Economies. Most of these economies are not built with ideas of gamification, they focus only on tangible rewards. Hence the limitations we’ve discussed. But they could focus on fun and be designed to unlock intrinsic motivation.
Balance! “Faucets & Drains” – ways to put money in, and take it out, of the economy.
Danger! Real money costs real money! Be sure to understand what kinds of obligations you’re taking on. Plus these tend to be extrinsic motivators: hedonic treadmill, crowding out, etc
> intrinsic value from rarity & surprise
12.4 Gamification Techniques: Collective action
>>> Grant, Inducement Prize, Employees, Crowdsourcing (microwork)
Microwork > Amazon Mechanical Turk
“HITs” Human Intelligence Tasks – platform for doing these tasks – very successful
BUT money is not the only motivator – is it possible to motivate peeps to participate in these crowdsourced projects without necessarily paying them to do it?
Yes! > Use Gamification! fold.it protein folding
it’s really hard… but it’s also a fun puzzle – humans are good at it!
15 years of research on folding of 3D aids related protein – fold.it users solved in 10 days!
Digitizing Finnish Library – review 2.5 million examples in Word Game.
Metatagging images for search engines
Gamification can be used both in situations where people explicitly know what they’re doing, and in situations where they’re just encouraged to do something fun.
12.5 The future of gamification
What if gamification really becomes pervasive?
Jesse Schell made manifest? Would be… Sight
12.6 Course review and wrap-up
Did “Sight” make you ask questions about nature of gamification’s potential positive and negative possibilities. Ask a set of questions. Be involved directly or indirectly in implementation.
• Empowering or Manipulative
• Shallow or Thoughtful
• Doing Feeling
• The future is up to you!
Good Luck! Go Forth & Gamify!